Παρασκευή, Ιανουαρίου 26, 2007
Δεν ήταν και δεν είναι απόφασή μου. Είναι Ανάγκη μου.
Βέβαια λόγω του «φυσιολογικού» περιβάλλοντος μέσα στο οποίο γαλουχήθηκα «μη χέσω», δυσκολεύτηκα εγώ η ίδια να δεχτώ τον εαυτό μου ως ομοφυλόφιλη και οι «φυσιολογικές σχέσεις» που είχα μόνο σχέσεις που δεν ήταν.
Τι κακό και αυτό να είσαι με έναν άντρα και στην ουσία να θες την εξαδέλφη, την αδελφή του …λέμε τώρα.
Όλα τα παραπάνω πιστεύω πως αντιπροσωπεύουν τους περισσότερους ομοφυλόφιλους για να μην πω όλους.
Αν λοιπόν, παρατηρούσατε και συζητούσατε με ένα παιδί 15 χρονών, θα καταλαβαίνατε ή όχι την ομοφυλοφιλία του; Δεν θα νιώθατε την ανάγκη να του πείτε μην ανησυχείς όλα θα πάνε καλά και ότι δεν είναι μόνο του; Αλήθεια αν ήσασταν καθηγήτρια του, τι θα του λέγατε;
Με ενδιαφέρουν οι γνώμες σας.
Παρουσίαζει με επιστημονικό τρόπο δεδομένα απο έρευνες που έχουν γίνει για την ομοφυλοφοβία και ομοφυλοφιλία
Δημιουργός του είναι ο Dr.Gregory Herek. Σας παραθέτουμε το βιογραφικό του.
Gregory Herek, Ph.D., is a Professor of Psychology at the University of California at Davis, where he teaches graduate and undergraduate courses on prejudice, sexual orientation, and survey research methodology.
He has published more than 80 scholarly papers on prejudice against lesbians and gay men, anti-gay violence, AIDS-related stigma, and related topics.
A Fellow of the American Psychological Association (APA) and the Association for Psychological Science, he is a past recipient of the APA Award for Distinguished Contributions to Psychology in the Public Interest.
He has testified before Congress on antigay violence and on military personnel policy, and has assisted the APA in preparing amicus briefs for numerous court cases related to sexual orientation.
Τρίτη, Ιανουαρίου 23, 2007
Increasingly, lesbians are having children through donor insemination and adoption. Four areas of potential concern for lesbians have been found that are different than for heterosexual women: (a) finding a sensitive birthing provider and worry about coming out to them, (b) making decisions around donors, (c) involving the nonpregnant female partner, and (d) legal issues around parenting (McManus et al., 2006). As noted earlier, lesbians have feared rejection and inadequate care if they "come out" to their provider, and this has been found to be true in pregnancy as well. Lesbians who wish to become pregnant have additional decisions about whether to use a known or unknown donor, how much interaction to have with the donor, and how much to tell the child about their conception (Haimes & Weiner, 2000). Partners may not feel welcome in prenatal groups, the delivery room and hospital environments that are set up for heterosexual couples (Buchholz, 2000). The lesbian partner has no legal responsibility to the child unless the couple lives in a state where marriage or civil unions exist, and the pregnant woman fears that her partner will not be allowed to participate in the birthing process and care of the child (Harvey et al., 1989). The nonbirth partner may need to do a second parent adoption, if allowed in their state, in order to have a legal relationship with the child. A recent focus group study found three major themes of stress in same-sex parenting which they thought might represent unique risk factors for perinatal depression: (a) disappointment over lack of family support, (b) difficulty in negotiating parenting roles, and (c) legal and political barriers (Ross, Steele, & Sapiro, 2005).
Children of lesbians have been found to have challenges due to social stigma, but studies have found that they are comparable to children raised in heterosexual families in social and psychological adjustment and development (Bos, van Balen, & van den Boom, 2004; Gartrell, Rodas, Deck, Peyser, & Banks, 2005; Golombok et al., 2003). The prevalence of physical and sexual abuse was less in these families (Gartrell et al., 2005), and the children were found to be less constrained by gender roles (Stacey & Biblarz, 2001).
Recommendation for lesbian health care
Several recommendations for the health care of lesbians can be made based on this research. Even though studies show that lesbians are now more comfortable in health care settings and are coming out to their health care providers in greater numbers, providers can increase comfort by being welcoming to this population in a variety of ways. Lesbians feel more included if health questionnaires in the office ask about the gender of sexual partners and educational materials use are inclusive or use gender-neutral language. Asking all patients, "Do you have sex with men, women or both?" provides the opportunity for women to discuss their sexuality. If women do disclose that they are lesbian, then determining whether their sexual orientation is creating discomfort in their lives may be useful in determining their need for support. Lesbians find it difficult to know who is lesbian sensitive when choosing a health care provider, and advertisement in gay media or explicit reference to welcoming lesbian women in promotional materials is useful. Lesbians prefer lesbian providers and benefit from knowing how to find them.
Rates of physical examination and pap smears have increased over the past 20 years, but studies show that up to 10% of lesbians still do not have pap smears. Heterosexual women often receive routine screening and health maintenance as part of visits to obtain birth control, but lesbians may not because of their lack of need for birth control. Lesbian women need to know that they may be at risk for cervical cancer and be encouraged to seek care for prevention when they are seen for other services. Specifically, it is now documented that lesbians are at risk for HPV and abnormal pap smears and need to follow the same guidelines. The rate of breast cancer in lesbians is not known, but there are increased risk factors for it among lesbians. Use of sexual behavior/identity as a variable in large breast cancer studies may help to determine the actual rate in this population. Lesbians appear to be aware of their risk for breast cancer, and report frequent mammograms, but still need to be encouraged to comply with guidelines for screening.
A careful sexual history is useful in determining the risk for sexually transmitted diseases as many women who identify as lesbian may have had or currently have male partners. Although chlamydia, gonorrhea, and syphilis have not been frequently identified in WSW, BV is common and can be transmitted from woman to woman. HIV is still uncommon in lesbians, but is found in any woman who uses IV drugs, has sex with high-risk men or are commercial sex workers irrespective of their sexual identity.
Lesbians have increased risk factors for cardiovascular disease, and recent studies suggest also an increased prevalence of cardiovascular diseases. Lesbians have consistently been found to have higher rates of overweight and obesity. There is no research that has explored the reasons for higher weight, but it is commonly thought that resistance to decreasing weight because it implies conformity to the societal norms that women must be thin and only have certain body types may be responsible. Increased weight does put lesbians at increased risk not only for cardiovascular disease but also for diabetes and breast cancer. An emphasis on improving health, rather than primarily on weight reduction may be more successful with lesbians. The research does show that lesbians are active in a variety of forms of exercise, and exercise programs may be an acceptable strategy for decreasing weight and preventing heart disease and other chronic illnesses. Smoking rates have also been shown to be high in lesbians, especially in adolescents. Emphasis on smoking cessation is important in decreasing the multiple health risks associated with tobacco. Further research is needed to explore attitudes and practices of lesbians related toward nutrition, exercise, smoking, and overweight. Clinical trials are needed to explore culturally appropriate and effective programs for this population.
Depression, relationship problems, and heavy alcohol use/abuse are consistent findings in most of the recent research. History of childhood sexual abuse is found in almost half of the lesbians in some studies, and its sequelae may be related to many of the other mental health concerns. The stress of being a sexual minority is also likely to be related to this excess morbidity. Although there is need for further research to understand the relationships between lesbians and these problems, there is also continued need for screening and culturally sensitive treatment programs. Health care providers are key to the recognition and referral for problems and referral to sensitive, and welcoming sources of therapy. The need to have available sensitive services is important to the health care for this population.
Adolescents are especially in need of services. Lesbian adolescents have high rates of smoking, depression, and suicide attempts. Health care providers are key in discussing sexuality, and educating, supporting, and delivering needed services, but broader services are necessary to meet their needs as well. Mechanisms for finding and supporting lesbian youth and those questioning their sexuality are essential to their health. Alliances with schools and agencies that service adolescents are needed to prevent mental and physical impact of discrimination and isolation that may occur.
Increasingly lesbian women are adopting and birthing children and raising families. Prenatal providers need to be sensitive and welcoming to lesbians seeking insemination and care for their pregnancy. Special needs of this population may be family support for the pregnancy, legal issues surrounding parenting, and needs of the nonpregnant partner. Although the children have not been found to have increased psychological or developmental issues, these families are at risk for discrimination and benefit from supportive counseling and services to avoid problems related to stigma.
Health care providers caring for lesbian women may find the following resource useful: Gay and Lesbian Medical Association, 459 Fulton Street, Suite 107, San Francisco, CA 94102, http://www.glma.org/. They may visit www.healthservice.gov.bc.ca/whb/publications/caring.pdf to obtain a copy of "Caring for Lesbian Health."
Research on lesbian health prior to the 1990s primarily explored the experiences of lesbians in health care and found them to be negative. Current research shows that lesbians now have higher rates of preventive care and of coming out to their health care providers. Sexually transmitted diseases, such as gonorrhea, chlamydia, and syphilis are rarely found in lesbians, and when they are, it is related to a history of current or past male partners. All forms of vaginitis, genital herpes, and HPV are found in this population, and BV appears to be especially common. Lesbian women are at risk for abnormal pap smears and should follow current guidelines for screening. There is also evidence that lesbians may be at higher risk for breast cancer and cardiovascular disease. Risk factor reduction programs that are specific to lesbians are needed to promote decreased weight, heavy alcohol use, and cigarette smoking. Multiple studies have found a high utilization of mental health services by lesbians, especially for depression and problems with alcohol. There continues to be need for wide spread availability of culturally sensitive mental health and addiction services to serve the special needs of the lesbian population. Recent research is increasingly available to guide the development of improved care and health promotion of lesbian women. Lesbians are no longer invisible and benefit from sensitive and informed care.
Δευτέρα, Ιανουαρίου 22, 2007
Παρασκευή, Ιανουαρίου 19, 2007
16- 17 Φεβρουαρίου 2007
Πολυχώρος BOOZE , Κολοκοτρώνη 57
Πολύ-χώρος ΒΟΟΖΕ , Κολοκοτρώνη 57 , Αθηνα
16 και 17 Φεβρουαρίου, 18:00 – 24:00
Γιατί κάθε άνθρωπος έχει τόσα να δώσει στους άλλους όσα και να πάρει. Γιατί κάθε ένας μας αποτελεί ένα πολύχρωμο κομματάκι του Κόσμου αυτού. Γιατί κάθε ένας έχει κάτι υπέροχο να δείξει ή να προσφέρει.
Υπάρχει καλύτερος τρόπος από την τέχνη; Εκθεση Γλυπτού, Φωτογραφίας, Κολλάζ, Video, κόμικ καθώς και μουσική και θεατρικά. Πολλά από τα έργα θα διατίθενται προς πώληση. Συμμετέχουν επίσης και πολλές ομάδες και οργανώσεις.
Χαρακτηριστικα αναφέρουμε ...
Η συμμετοχή φυσικά ήταν ανοιχτή σε όλους τους καλλιτέχνες. Συμμετέχουν 50 καλλιτέχνες με έργα τους.
ΟΛΟΙ! Η είσοδος είναι ελεύθερη
Διοργάνωση Be Positive
Χορηγοί Επικοινωνίας: Antivirus... κατά του ιού της βίας, City Uncovered, ....
Research has demonstrated that women who have sex with women (WSW) report having had most kinds of vaginitis, but gonorrhea, herpes or syphilis were reported only by lesbians who had sex with men (Carroll et al., 1997; Johnson et al., 1981, 1987; Robertson & Schacter, 1981; Roberts et al., 2000.) A careful sexual history is necessary to determine risk because lesbians often report a history of past male partners, sometimes within the last year (Diamant, Schuster, McGuigan, & Lever, 1999; Marrazzo & Stine, 2004). Lesbians who reported six or more male sexual partners were more likely to have had a sexually transmitted disease in one study (Diamant et al., 1999). Bacterial vaginosis (BV) is very commonly found in lesbians and their female partners (Berger et al., 1995) and can be spread between female partners (Marrazzo et al., 2002). Rates of HIV infection rates are generally low, but high in lesbians who have sex with high-risk men, use intravenous (IV) drugs, or other drugs and are sex workers (Cochran et al., 1996; Lemp et al., 1995; Mays, Cochran, Pies, Chu, & Ehrhardt, 1996). Researchers emphasize the need for history taking for sexual partners and drug use among WSW to assess risk and discuss prevention of HIV and other sexually transmitted diseases.
Mental health care
Research on utilization of mental health services has documented that lesbians use mental health services at high rates (Bernhard & Applegate, 1999; Bradford, Ryan, & Rothblum, 1994; Cochran & Mays, 2000; Hughes, Haas, & Avery, 1997; Hughes, Haas, Razzano, Cassidy, & Matthews, 2000; Matthews, Hughes, Johnson, Razzano, & Cassidy, 2002; Roberts, Grindel, Patsdaughter, Reardon, & Tarmina, in press; Sorensen & Roberts, 1997; Trippet & Bain, 1993) and have a more positive response to therapy (Jones & Gabriel, 1999; Morgan, 1997). Almost 70% to 80% of lesbian samples report use of mental health services (Bradford et al., 1994; Hughes et al., 1997; Roberts et al., in press; Sorensen & Roberts). Cochran and Mays found that both men and women reporting any same gender sex partners were more likely than others to have used mental health services in the previous year. Therapy rates in lesbians are significantly higher than in heterosexual women (Hughes et al., 1997, 2000; Matthews et al., 2002). Depression and relationship problems are the most commonly cited reasons for counseling (Bradford et al.; Roberts et al.; Sorensen & Roberts).
Depression has consistently been found to be the major mental health problem found in surveys of lesbians (Bradford et al., 1994; Cochran & Mays, 1994; Roberts et al., in press; Sorensen & Roberts, 1997). Several large studies found significantly higher levels of depression in lesbians in the sample compared with the heterosexual women (Case et al., 2004; Valanis et al., 2000). Another study also found higher rates of treatment for depression and of suicide attempts than the heterosexual women in their sample (Matthews et al., 2002). At least one suicide attempt was reported by 18% to 20% of lesbian samples in several surveys (Bradford et al.; Hughes et al., 1997; Roberts et al.; Sorensen & Roberts). Suicide attempt rates are highest among bisexual and lesbian adolescents (Garofalo, Wolf, Wissow, Woods, & Goodman, 1999; Ramafedi, French, Story, Resnick, & Blum, 1998).
There is little data on reasons for the increased mental health needs in this population, but it has been suggested that that "secrecy" about being a lesbian, dealing with their sexual identity, and being a member of a stigmatized group lead to anxiety and depression (Bernhard & Applegate, 1999; Case et al., 2004; Cochran, 2001). This reason is particularly true for adolescents (Paroski, 1987).
Alcohol use and abuse
Several groups of investigators, in early studies, identified a higher use of alcohol and alcohol abuse in lesbian populations, in some almost five times that of heterosexual women (Diamond & Wilsnack, 1978; Hall, 1992; Lewis, Saghir, & Robins, 1982; Milman & Su, 1973), but these studies were criticized for selecting their samples from bars and clinical populations in which alcohol abuse may be more frequent (Mosbacher, 1988). A study with improved methodology found a higher percentage of alcohol and drug use but not of heavy drug use when compared to the general public (McKirnan & Peterson, 1989a, 1989b). Subsequent community-based surveys have, however, consistently reported higher rates of drinking and heavy drinking when compared to national data on women in general (Aaron et al., 2001; Bradford et al., 1994; Roberts, Grindel, Patsdaughter, DeMarco, & Tarmina, 2004; Roberts & Sorensen, 1999a).
Data from the 1996 National Household Survey of Drug Abuse found that women who had same-sex sexual partners used alcohol more frequently, in greater amounts, and had greater alcohol-related morbidity than women with opposite sex partners (Cochran, Keenan, Schober, & Mays, 2000). They were also more likely to be classified with alcohol or drug dependency syndromes (Cochran & Mays, 2000). Hughes et al. (1997) found lower rates of alcohol use among lesbians than a heterosexual comparison group, but of the lesbians who reported abstinence from alcohol in the last year, 40% (as compared to 7% of heterosexual women) had been in alcohol treatment or in a 12-step recovery program. Two reviews concluded that lesbians have similar rates of heavy drinking, but that drinking rates do not decline with age as they do with heterosexual women, and that lesbians report more alcohol-related problems (Abbott, 1998; Hughes & Wilsnack, 1997).
The reason for heavy alcohol use and increased alcohol abuse in lesbians is not clear. A large study of women in a California Health Maintenance Organization (HMO) found that the lesbian and bisexual women were more likely than the heterosexual women in their sample to drink and to drink heavily, and this difference was independent of the effects of stress, depression, and socioeconomic variables (Gruskin et al., 2001). Another study also found higher rates of heavy drinking in lesbian than in a heterosexual comparison group, and 18% of the lesbians reported being in alcohol recovery compared with 2% of the heterosexual women (Hughes, Johnson, & Wilsnack, 2001). Alcohol abuse in this sample was related to a history of childhood sexual abuse. Several other studies have noted a relationship between heavy alcohol use and sexual abuse in lesbian samples (Roberts, Grindel, DeMarco, & Patsdaughter, 2004; Roberts & Sorensen, 1999b). Early studies had suggested that lesbians may report higher rates of childhood sexual abuse (Gundlach, 1977; Loulan, 1987) and subsequent surveys have reinforced this finding (Bradford et al., 1994; Roberts & Sorensen). Several reviews have suggested that heavy alcohol use and abuse is not related, per se, to homosexuality, but rather to the stress of discrimination and marginalization, and the presence of known risk factors, such as a history of sexual abuse (Hughes, 2006; Hughes & Wilsnack, 1997). Alcohol abuse may be related to the stress of discrimination and marginalization and the presence of known risk factors.
Πέμπτη, Ιανουαρίου 18, 2007
Health Care Recommendations for Lesbian Women by Susan Jo Roberts
The client-provider relationship
Early studies focused on the relationship between lesbians and health care providers, probably due to concern about problems in this area. Research found that lesbians had negative experiences in health care encounters, and that nurses and physicians held negative attitudes toward them (Mathews, Booth, Turner, & Kessler, 1986; Randall, 1989; Stevens, 1992; Stevens & Hall, 1988). Lesbians also reported fear that the quality of care would be negatively affected if they disclosed their sexuality (Buchholz, 2000; McManus, Hunter, & Renn, 2006; Stevens). Not surprisingly, researchers have found that lesbians are hesitant to disclose their sexuality to a health care provider (Cochran & Mays, 1988; Michigan Organization for Human Rights, 1991). More recent studies have found that higher rates of disclosure to providers, a change that most likely reflects increased comfort in care settings (Klitzman & Greenberg, 2002; Roberts, Patsdaughter, Grindel, & Tarmina, 2004; White & Dull, 1997).
Physical examinations and cancer screening
Not surprisingly given their anxiety about health care, several of the early surveys also found that less than 50% of lesbians had had an annual physical examination, and most sought care only when a problem arose (Bradford & Ryan, 1988; Johnson, Guenther, Laube, & Keetel, 1981; Roberts & Sorensen, 1999a; Zeidenstein, 1990). Results of a more recent survey demonstrated increased use of routine physicals (Roberts et al., 2004). Lesbians prefer a female and, if possible, lesbian providers (Johnson et al., 1981; Trippet & Bain, 1993) and frequently use "alternative" providers, such as acupunturists, massage therapists, and nonphysician health care providers (Harvey, Carr, & Bernheine, 1989; Matthews, Hughes, Osterman, & Kodl, 2005; McManus et al., 2006; Trippet & Bain; White & Dull, 1997).
Research on screening for cervical cancer in early studies also found that only about 50% had had a recent pap smear (Bradford & Ryan, 1988; Johnson, Smith, & Guenther, 1987; Johnson et al., 1981). A meta-analysis that adjusted the data from early lesbian surveys for comparison with the National Health Interview Survey found that lesbians had lower rates of pap smears than women in general (Cochran et al., 2001). More recent studies have found increased rates of pap smear screening, but they are still lower than national guidelines and heterosexual comparison groups (Diamant, Schuster, & Lever, 2000; Roberts et al., 2004; Powers, Bowen, & White, 2001; White & Dull, 1997).
This lower rate of screening was thought to be of less concern because research had suggested that the incidence of cervical dysplasia on pap smear was low, less than 3%, and was related to history of current or past male partners (Johnson et al., 1981, 1987; Roberts, Sorensen, Patsdaughter, & Grindel, 2000; Robertson & Schachter, 1981). One team of researchers found that lesbians perceive themselves to be less susceptible to cervical cancer than heterosexual or bisexual women and therefore thought they did not need routine screening (Price, Easton, Telljohann, & Wallace, 1996). Recent analyses, however, suggest that human papillomavirus (HPV) infection is found in lesbian women, and that pap smear screening guidelines should be the same as for heterosexual women (Carroll, Goldstein, Wilson, & Mayer, 1997; Cochran, Bybee, Gage, & Mays, 1996; Marrazzo, Koutsky, Kiviat, Kuypers, & Stine, 2001; Marrazzo, Stine, & Koutsky, 2000; Rankow & Tessaro, 1998a). One study found that HPV DNA was detected in 13% of the lesbians that they screened, and that HPV related lesions were found even in women who had never had sex with men (Marazzo et al., 2001).
Rates for mammography screening for lesbians are less consistent. Although some studies have found lower rates than in heterosexual women (Cochran et al., 2001; Powers et al., 2001), others have found fairly high rates of screening (Aaron et al., 2001; Burnett, Steakley, Slack, Roth, & Lerman, 1999; Diamant et al., 2000; Lauver et al., 1999; Rankow & Tessaro, 1998b; Roberts, Dibble, Scanlon, Paul, & Davids, 1998; Roberts et al., 2004; Roberts & Sorensen, 1999a; White & Dull, 1997). One study found that barriers to mammography were low perception of need and motivation, physical discomfort, and cost, but these findings are similar to that found in heterosexual women (Lauver et al.).
The lack of inclusion of sexual orientation/identity and behavior on national statistics for breast cancer makes it difficult to know the actual prevalence in lesbians. There is recent evidence of increased rates of known risk factors for breast cancer, such as increased body mass, high alcohol intake, and nulliparity in lesbians compared with heterosexual women (Case et al., 2004; Cochran et al., 2001; Diamant & Wold, 2003; Dibble, Roberts, & Nussey, 2004; Roberts, Dibble, Nussey, & Casey, 2003; Roberts et al., 1998; Yancey, Cochran, Corliss, & Mays, 2003). These findings suggest that lesbians may be at increased risk for the development of breast cancer.
It is difficult to determine the actual prevalence of breast cancer in lesbians.
Cardiovascular disease and risk factors
Research has found increased risk for cardiovascular disease in lesbians. The analysis of early lesbian health surveys found that they were significantly more likely to be obese and to smoke than women in general (Cochran et al., 2001). They also found that lesbians were less likely to consider themselves to be overweight. More recent analysis of the lesbians in studies with large samples of women also found increased cardiovascular risk and heart disease (Case et al., 2004; Diamant & Wold, 2003; Valanis et al., 2000). Risk factors included higher rates of obesity, smoking, alcohol use, and less intake of fruits and vegetables. Some studies have found that, although lesbians had the risk factors noted above, they were less likely to smoke and more likely to participate in regular exercise (Aaron et al., 2001; Roberts et al., 1998). Another study found that lesbians had a higher body mass index, waist circumference, and waist ratio than their heterosexual sisters, and were more likely to cycle their weight, all known to be risks for heart disease (Roberts et al., 2003). Lesbians were, however, equally likely to smoke cigarettes, ate less red meat, and were more likely to exercise at least weekly.
Correlates of overweight and obesity in lesbians and bisexuals have been found to be age, poorer health status, lower educational attainment, relationship cohabitation, and lower exercise frequency (Yancey et al., 2003). A common assumption has been that lesbians are more likely to be overweight or obese because they do not adhere to the societal norm that women must be thin and only have certain body types. One of the few studies on this topic found that, although heterosexual women and gay men reported lower ideal weight than lesbians or heterosexual men, lesbians and heterosexual women both reported greater concern about weight, more "body dissatisfaction," and greater frequency of dieting (Brand, Rothblum, & Solomon, 1992). Another found that lesbians had similar attitudes concerning weight, appearance and dieting, and had similar rates of bulimia as heterosexual women (Heffernan, 1996).
Smoking rates of lesbian samples have been variable in different samples, from 10% to 12% in some (Burnett et al., 1999; White & Dull, 1997) to 83% in an adolescent sample (Rosario, Hunter, & Gwadz, 1997), with most surveys reporting rates of 18% to 41% (Aaron et al., 2001; Bradford & Ryan, 1988; Roberts & Sorensen, 1999a; Roberts et al., 2004; Skinner & Otis, 1996). Some studies have found that lesbians have twice the rate of smoking of heterosexual women (Gruskin, Hart, Gordon, & Ackerson, 2001; Valanis et al., 2000). One survey of minority lesbians also found higher rates of current smoking (Mays, Yancey, Cochran, Weber, & Fielding, 2002). Reviews have concluded that smoking rates for adolescent and adult lesbians are higher than their national comparison groups, with adolescents being highest for both groups (Hughes & Jacobson, 2003; Ryan, Wortley, Easton, Pederson, & Greenwood, 2001).
Πέμπτη, Ιανουαρίου 11, 2007
Αναδημοσιεύουμε απo την ιστοσελίδα www.gayworld.gr. τις ακόλουθες δύο ανακοινώσεις από τη Σύμπραξη Κατά της Ομοφυλοφοβίας που εδρεύει στη Θεσσαλονίκη.
Σε λίγες μέρες κυκλοφορεί το βιβλίο «Οικογένειες από ομόφυλα ζευγάρια». Πρόκειται για τα πρακτικά ομώνυμου διεπιστημονικού συνεδρίου που διοργανώθηκε στη Θεσσαλονίκη από τη Σύμπραξη Κατά της Ομοφυλοφοβίας και περιέχει εισηγήσεις νομικών, κοινωνιολόγων, ψυχολόγων και εκπροσώπων των ομοφυλοφιλικών οργανώσεων, καθώς και τη συζήτηση με τους συνέδρους. Θα κυκλοφορήσει από τον εκδοτικό οίκο ΕΠΙΚΕΝΤΡΟ. Περισσότερες πληροφορίες στο 69 99 249 000.
Από την Κυριακή 14 Γενάρη 2007 και κάθε Κυριακή στις 20:00 στη Φίλιππου 51/ 1ος όροφος, η Σύμπραξη κατά τα ομοφυλοφοβίας καλεί όσους επιθυμούν να γνωρίσουν άλλες γυναίκες και άνδρες και την Σύμπραξη να συζητήσουν , να ανταλλάξουν απόψεις στο ζεστό και φιλόξενο χώρο της. Μπορεί κανείς να ενημερωθεί να κάνει νέους φίλους να πάρει έντυπο υλικό. Για περισσότερες πληροφορίες το τηλέφωνο της Σύμπραξης 6999249 000( Ν. Χατζητρυφων )
Τετάρτη, Ιανουαρίου 10, 2007
Κλείνω με μια πολύ αξιόλογη προσπάθεια που γίνεται στον Καναδά:
Στην ακόλουθη ιστοσελίδα http://schools.tdsb.on.ca/triangle/index.html θα βρείτε πληροφορίες για το πρόγραμμα Triangle που εδρεύει στο Toronto, Ontario το οποίο διανύει τον 9ο χρόνο λειτουργίας του.
Στο link Student Work θα βρείτε δουλείες των μαθητών και μαθητριών που παρακολουθούν το πρόγραμμα αυτό. Επίσης, έχει δημιουργηθεί και το ακόλουθο εκπαιδευτικό video με τον τίτλο Gr 9 Up.
color. 39 min. with tchr's. guide.
Produced by School House Prods
Distributed by Filmakers Library.
Gr 9 Up-- This engrossing video follows three white middle-class Canadian teens as they deal with their homosexuality: two gays, Adam and Richard, and one lesbian Adina. They attend Triangle, Canada's only high school for homosexual, bisexual, and transgender teens. Along with academics, Triangle provides friendship, counseling, and group discussion which helps the three accept who they are and find some stability in their situations. Richard's difficulties include dealing with his homophobic family and adjusting after his lover rejects him. He drops out to work at a beauty salon. Adam, who had been ridiculed in school, feels he has gained the strength to come out and to return to the regular high school. Adina's Rabbi father's rejection turns to acceptance as he learns how to better understand her and finds out about her academic achievements. She will return to Triangle in the fall. The video does an excellent job of capturing the anguish these teens feel. Family situations are hard-hitting but insightful. The video can be used in psychology and sociology classes, as well as in counseling sessions with homosexual students.
Gay and Lesbian Issues in Schools
Presents an excerpt from the book 'Sex and Sensibility: The Thinking Parent's Guide to Talking Sense About Sex,' by Deborah Roffman. Controversy about teaching sexuality education in the United States; Concerns raised about how the topic of homosexuality could be in any way age-appropriate; Children's exposure to lesbian and gay issues.
'Sex and Sensibility: The Thinking Parent's Guide to Talking Sense About Sex
Teaching about homosexuality in schools is one of the most controversial issues in American education today. Aside from objections raised by some religious groups, there exists great misunderstanding of its purpose. Just as many people misinterpret sexuality education as being focused literally on sex, they are apt to think that education about homosexuality education is intended to focus literally on homosexual sex. Particularly at the elementary school level, therefore, they may be mystified at how the topic of homosexuality could be in any way age-appropriate. No wonder they may think that someone else's agenda is in play. Moreover, as with the misguided beliefs and fears about the process of sex education, they may worry that "knowing Will lead directly to doing" if their children are exposed to the subject.
The fact of the matter is that classroom teaching -- almost at any age -- in no way introduces the subject of homosexuality to children or adolescents. In today's world, lesbian and gay issues are ubiquitous in children's lives. From TV talk shows, news stories, movies, and other programming they watch, to the playground chatter they overhear, to the "in-group-out-group" language of their peer groups, the topic of homosexuality is already in their thoughts and experiences. Homosexuality is simply a reality of modern American life that is ever-present in media and current events, in families and friendships, in laws, politics, religion, and youth culture. Schools that attempt to grapple with the topic -- by providing accurate information and by allowing children to talk about what they already know or think they know and to clarify and learn from the views of others -- are not in any way "putting ideas in children's heads." Rather, these schools are fulfilling their responsibility to help kids understand the world as it is.
Conversely, when schools or parents deny, ignore, or run from this or any other important issue in children's lives, they may implicitly communicate or teach various destructive messages: that adults are too disinterested, uncomfortable, or uninformed to care; that they lack the courage to stand up to controversy or conflict, even when the education, health, and emotional and physical safety of young people may be at stake; that they are clueless or in utter denial about what exists right before their very eyes and ears. As we have emphasized in this book, uninvolved adults will end up both undercutting themselves as credible adult resources and abdicating their all-important roles and duty to affirm, give information, clarify values, set limits, and provide anticipatory guidance. And they will virtually assure that culture and peers will step into the void.
Lessons in school about homosexuality are not intended to promote anything but education, understanding, and safer school environments. They do not advocate that people become gay, only acknowledge that some people are gay; they are not about describing sexual practices --although certainly the topic may come up and be addressed -- but about clarifying the reality of people's lives. For example, talking about the topic of homosexual families (i.e., families headed by gay and lesbian couples) is no more about the subject of sex than is talking about life in families headed by heterosexual individuals. The topic at hand is not the mechanics of sexual behavior, but the fact that some people love, desire, live with, and have sex with one another in same-gender relationships.
Almost always, the most important topics that arise in such conversations are not about sex, or even sexual orientation, but about issues of bias and discrimination, respect and tolerance. The learning typically goes way beyond "gay sex" or even the "gay issue" to discussions of ethical and kind treatment of others. And, because children of all ages understand name-calling and mistreatment -- and how very much they can hurt -- the topic can be handled in an age-appropriate fashion at almost any age. It is never too early for children to talk about respect and to learn about differences among people.
Conversations in school also allow students to learn many new facts and to critically examine the myths, misinformation, confusions, and stereotypes about homosexuality to which they are constantly exposed. They will learn to identify and analyze images of lesbians and gays in the media and clarify crucial distinctions regarding biological gender, gender roles, gender identity, and sexual orientation. They'll explore theories of how people develop heterosexual, homosexual, or bisexual orientations (thought to be a combination of biological and environmental factors) and learn that people do not choose their particular orientation but rather come to discover it. They'll hunt for current events in the fields of religion, law, politics, science, health, and family life that pertain to sexual orientation, intersexuality, and transgender. They'll learn that lesbian and gay individuals are part of a highly diverse population of people who defy narrow and often derogatory stereotypes regarding physical appearance, mannerisms, occupation, and lifestyle.
Almost all young people question their sexual orientation, if only at some brief point, and some continue to question their place on the sexual orientation continuum for considerable periods of time. (In fact, facilities and programs that serve sexual minority youth more and more commonly refer to their clientele as GLBTQ youth, for Gay, Lesbian, Bisexual, Transgendered, and Questioning.) It is helpful for young people to understand that individuals can experience different patterns of development: Some will know or sense their orientation long before pubescence, most will find that their orientation solidifies around or by the time of puberty, whereas others will discover it more gradually. By age eighteen, most (95 percent) know with certainty. Full awareness and acceptance of bisexual orientation, interestingly, appears to be significantly delayed in comparison to heterosexuality or homosexuality, occurring commonly in the middle to late twenties.
Adolescents also need to appreciate crucial distinctions between the sexual orientation, sexual attraction, sexual fantasy, and sexual behavior. Many people who are fundamentally heterosexual (or homosexual) in orientation will at some time in their lives experience fantasies about same-gender (or other-gender) sexual encounters or find themselves romantically or sexually attracted to particular members of their same (or other) gender. They may or may not act on those fantasies or attractions, but even for those who do, individual experiences will not change or determine fundamental orientation.
It is not at all uncommon for heterosexual (or homosexual) adolescents to experience same-gender (or other-gender) attractions or "crushes," even to the point of physical experimentation. If they do not comprehend the relatively transitory nature of these experiences -- or the differences between attraction, fantasy, behavior, and orientation --they may draw inaccurate conclusions or place inappropriate labels on themselves or others. By the same token, they need to understand that pressuring themselves to engage in particular sexual acts with particular individuals will not establish, confirm, or deny sexual orientation. One's sexual orientation simply is what it is; people can "have" a sexual orientation without engaging in any sexual behavior at all.
Making Change Happen
In the upper-level courses that I teach, students use the local paper and a daily national newspaper as their text. One of the most dramatic trends I've noticed over the decades is that each year, a higher percentage of the articles relate to aspects of homosexuality and to gay and lesbian issues in our society. This topic is not going away, and the opportunities and pressures for schools and families to change will mount. Many changes will evolve gradually and unconsciously as gay culture and gay youth continue to move, in the words of Ryan and Futterman, "from the margins to the mainstream." The pressures on schools, no doubt, will often involve acrimonious conflict and debate. All of it will take time. As Kevin Jennings, executive director of the Gay Lesbian Straight Education Alliance, continually points out, change is a process, not an event.
Unfortunately, while time passes, another generation of youngsters --gay and straight -- will suffer the consequences of our adult silence, confusion, conflict, and inaction. In some schools, every child is affected by homophobia every single day. For gay youth and adults and for all of us who know, love, care about, parent, or are parented by people who are lesbian or gay, the effects are immediate and deeply painful. Surely, there is common ground enough in our compassion for one another and for our children to make change happen more quickly, one event at a time.
Editor's Note: The following is an excerpt from Sex and Sensibility: The Thinking Parent's Guide to Talking Sense about Sex by Deborah M. Roffman, based on her quarter-century of teaching in independent education. The book was published in January 2001 by Perseus Publishing (Massachusetts). Reprinted with permission.
1 Caitlin Ryan and Donna Futterman, Lesbian and Gay Youth: Care and Counseling (New York) Columbia University Press, 1998).
Δευτέρα, Ιανουαρίου 08, 2007
Κάθομαι και κλείνω τα μάτια, να ηρεμήσω. Περνάει μια κυρία με έναν κύριο και ψάχνει την βαλίτσα που έχασε. Γυρίζω να δω τα πράγματά μας: το σακβουαγιάζ, τα μπουφάν, την σακούλα με τα βιβλία από τον Πολύχρωμο Πλανήτη. Οι γιορτές περάσανε γρήγορα και αυτά που κάναμε μαζί αλλά και η καθεμία ξεχωριστά, τόσα πολλά, τόσα ταξίδια που άρχισα να αισθάνομαι θεατής της ζωής μου– θέλω χρόνο να κατακαθίσουν οι εμπειρίες, οι γνωριμίες, να κάνω έναν απολογισμό…
Πρώτη στάση : Πολύχρωμος Πλανήτης
Κατεβήκαμε στην Αθήνα για να δούμε το έργο 2. Φτάσαμε. Γρήγορο φρεσκάρισμα και πάμε στο βιβλιοπωλείο Πολύχρωμος Πλανήτης. Αντωνιάδου 6, στο Πεδίο του Άρεως. Ευτυχώς όχι μακριά από κει που μέναμε. Χτυπήσαμε το κουδούνι, ένας κύριος μας καλωσόρισε, είπαμε ευχές, του είπα πως έχουμε έρθει από Θεσσαλονίκη και θα θέλαμε να ρίξουμε μια ματιά στα βιβλία. Όταν μπαίνω για πρώτη φορά σε έναν χώρο προσέχω αν υπάρχουν βιβλία, αν παίζει μουσική, τι μουσική. Μουσική λοιπόν, κλασσική και σε τόνο ήρεμο, χαλαρό. Συζητήσεις ακούγονταν από κάπου άλλού. Ο χώρος υποδοχής είχε ημερολόγια, περιοδικά, cd, dvd και ο κυρίως χώρος βιβλία. Ταξιθετημένα κατά θεματικές ενότητες, προτεινόμενα. Διακριτικά η κα Γαλανού – η ιδιοκτήτρια – μας καλωσόρισε και μας ρώτησε αν θέλαμε κάτι. Θέλαμε να ρίξουμε μια ματιά, να αγοράσουμε κάποια βιβλία, να γνωρίσουμε τον χώρο. Μας άρεσε πολύ, αισθανθήκαμε άνετα, ήμασταν σε ένα χώρο που αποπνέει τάξη, δημιουργεί σεβασμό: ‘Ότι εδώ γίνεται μια σοβαρή προσπάθεια.’ Στον κύριο που μας άνοιξε μιλήσαμε για το Μπρίκι και χαρήκαμε που μας γνώριζε. Συζητήσαμε για τα blogs, για τις διακρίσεις σε βάρος των ομοφυλοφίλων και εκεί πάνω ρωτάει η σύντροφος μου για την συμμετοχή του κόσμου στις εκδηλώσεις του Πολύχρωμου Πλανήτη: σε μια πόλη των 5 εκατομμυρίων και αν λάβουμε υπόψιν μας το 10%.. θα έχει η Αθήνα 500.000 ομοφυλόφιλους... άρα λογικά θα έχει ικανοποιητική συμμετοχή, σωστά;
Έρχεται η απάντηση: το περισσότερο γύρω στους 50… Δεν μιλώ αλλά σκέφτομαι: έκανα τόσα χιλιόμετρα και η πρώτη μου σκέψη ήταν να έρθω και να γνωρίσω από κοντά τον χώρο. Και όταν θα κατέβω ξανά σίγουρα θα ξανάπαω και θα αφιερώσω περισσότερο χρόνο στους ανθρώπους αυτήν την φορά. Και εδώ στην Αθήνα, στο κέντρο της πρωτεύουσας και να έχει τόσο λίγη συμμετοχή;
Έρχεται η απάντηση της συντρόφου μου: οι περισσότεροι ομοφυλόφιλοι βιώνουν την ομοφυλοφιλία τους στα μπαρ, στις ξέφρενες νύχτες και μετά επιστρέφουν κύριοι και κυρίες στις οικογένειες τους. Δεν τους ενδιαφέρει τίποτε άλλο πέρα από αυτό.
Συστηθήκαμε και φύγαμε.
Επόμενη στάση: 2
Οδός Βουκουρεστίου, θέατρο Παλλάς, γέμισε και 3.000 μάτια παρακολουθήσαμε για μία ώρα και 45 λεπτά το 2. Τελείωσε, χειροκρότημα. Φεύγουμε. Ακόμη και τώρα που έχουν περάσει τόσες μέρες δεν μπορώ να πω και πολλά. Άφησα πίσω μου όσα διάβασα και άκουσα για το 2. Μπήκα άδεια και έφυγα γεμάτη εικόνες, σκέψεις, συναισθήματα, σκηνές να μου κάνουν επίθεση σε άσχετες στιγμές. Μου άρεσε ΠΑΡΑ πολύ. Όχι γιατί εμείς οι γκέι πρέπει να υποστηρίζουμε αλλήλοις αλλά γιατί πραγματικά με άγγιξε. Μου μίλησε. Ακόμη η συνομιλία μας δεν έχει ολοκληρωθεί. Ο άντρας της εποχής μας, μόνος, τρομαγμένος, βιώνει υπαρξιακά προβλήματα, είναι ευαίσθητος. ‘ είναι άντρας χωρίς θήλυ στη ζωή του, είναι θέσει ή δυνάμει γκέι.’ Όπως έγραψε ο Γ.Ν. Ξυδάκης.
Και επειδή μπορεί να είναι φύσει ή θέσει γκέι τι σημαίνει αυτό; Ότι δεν βιώνει τέτοιες καταστάσεις; Ότι δεν ψάχνει να βρει την αγάπη, να ξεφύγει από την μοναξιά του ενός των μεγάλων και μικρών αστικών κέντρων; Να γίνει 2; Σκέφτομαι ότι εκτός από το ποδόσφαιρο και τα playstation και τον στρατό, ο Παπαίωάννου πιάνει θέματα που μας αφορούν: άντρες και γυναίκες, γκέι και λεσβίες. Μιλάει για την αγωνία όλων μας να βρούμε τον άνθρωπο μας, να συνυπάρξουμε μαζί του.
Τελείωσε και σκέφτομαι ακόμη μια από τις πολύ λίγες εκφράσεις που ακούστηκαν: Δεν θέλει δύναμη. Σπρώξε μαλακά.
Υπάρχει ελπίδα, υπάρχει τρόπος λοιπόν. Υπάρχει χρόνος να γίνει το ένα 2.
Καλή Χρονία σε όλες και όλους. Και φέτος πάλι εδώ.